Image Resolution: 

        Image  Resolution = (Field of View (FOV) / Number of camera pixels in one direction)  * 2


If the FOV of horizontal direction is 50 mm and the number of sensors in the X direction is 640, the image resolution can be calculated:

                                            = (50 / 640) * 2 = 0.156 mm
                             
                   
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HSL - Hue Saturation Luminance.


Hue defines the color of a pixel such as red, yellow, green, and blue or combination of two of them. It is related to wavelength of a light. 

Saturation refers to the amount of white added to the hue and represents the relative purity of a color. If the saturation increases, color becomes pure. If colors are mixed, the saturation decreases. For example, red has higher saturation compared with pink.

 Luminance is closely related with the brightness of image. Extracting the luminance values of an HSL color image results in a good conversion of a color image to a grayscale representation.

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 * Here is the simple example of Led Blinking using sequential structure in labview . this Basic Program will       helps lot in advanced programming in labview. 
 * By this example you can understand Local variable creation and delays Usage. 







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VHDL IEEE PACKAGES - DATA TYPES – DATA CONVERSIONS
IEEE PACKAGE:
The IEEE library contains several packages, including the following:
  • std_logic_1164: Specifies the STD_LOGIC (8 levels) and STD_ULOGIC (9 levels) multi-valued logic systems.
  • std_logic_arith: Specifies the SIGNED and UNSIGNED data types and related arithmetic and comparison operations. It also contains several data conversion functions, which allow one type to be converted into another: conv_integer(p), conv_unsigned(p, b), conv_signed(p, b), conv_std_logic_vector(p, b).
  • std_logic_signed: Contains functions that allow operations with STD_LOGIC_VECTOR data to be performed as if the data were of type SIGNED.
  • std_logic_unsigned: Contains functions that allow operations with STD_LOGIC_VECTOR data to be performed as if the data were of type UNSIGNED.
  • std_logic_textio: Contains functions text i/o, file read & write, etc.

Pre-Defined Data Types
VHDL contains a series of pre-defined data types, specified through the IEEE 1076 and IEEE 1164 standards. More specifically, such data type definitions can be found in the following packages / libraries:
  • Package standard of library std: Defines BIT, BOOLEAN, INTEGER, and REAL data types.
  • Package std_logic_1164 of library ieee: Defines STD_LOGIC and STD_ULOGIC data types.
  • Package std_logic_arith of library ieee: Defines SIGNED and UNSIGNED data types, plus several data conversion functions, like conv_integer(p), conv_unsigned(p, b), conv_signed(p, b), and conv_std_logic_vector(p, b).
  • Packages std_logic_signed and std_logic_unsigned of library ieee: Contain functions that allow operations with STD_LOGIC_VECTOR data to be performed as if the data were of type SIGNED or UNSIGNED, respectively.




DATA CONVERSIONS:
Several data conversion functions can be found in the std_logic_arith package of
the ieee library. They are:
  • conv_integer(p) : Converts a parameter p of type INTEGER, UNSIGNED, SIGNED, or STD_ULOGIC to an INTEGER value. Notice that STD_LOGIC_VECTOR is not included.
  • conv_unsigned(p, b): Converts a parameter p of type INTEGER, UNSIGNED, SIGNED, or STD_ULOGIC to an UNSIGNED value with size b bits.
  • conv_signed(p, b): Converts a parameter p of type INTEGER, UNSIGNED, SIGNED, or STD_ULOGIC to a SIGNED value with size b bits.
  • conv_std_logic_vector(p, b): Converts a parameter p of type INTEGER, UNSIGNED, SIGNED, or STD_LOGIC to a STD_LOGIC_VECTOR value with size b bits.


The following are the examples for converting interger to std logic vector, unsigned, singed and std logic vector to integer, and integer to real & complex, and integer to string. By converting std logic vector to integer, and that integer value to string, we can convert std logic vector to string.
INTEGER TO SLV/UNSIGNED/SIGNED
num is integer
USE IEEE.NUMERIC_STD.ALL;
dat <=std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(55,dat'length));

use ieee.std_logic_arith.all;--NEVER USE STD LOGIC ARITH & NUMERIC_STD TOGETHER
slv<= conv_std_logic_vector(num,slv’length);
unsignd := conv_unsigned(num,unsignd’length);
signd := conv_signed(num,signd’length);

SLV TO INTEGER
USE IEEE.STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED.ALL;
variable inte:natural;
--dat= std_logic_vector 11 downto 0
inte:=conv_integer(dat); -- to integer
INTEGER TO STRING
report "dat= " & integer'image(inte); --to string

INTEGER TO REAL/COMPLEX
num is integer
USE IEEE.MATH_REAL.ALL;
real_num := real(inte);
complx := complex(inte);

Coming soon: Basic VHDL Syntaxes & Constructs, Detailed and latest file read write with hexadecimal, octal, binary data types….. Stay tuned.


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Renesas eclipse embedded studio, known as e² studio, is a complete development and debug environment based on the popular Eclipse CDT project. Essentially open source, the Eclipse CDT covers build (editor, compiler and linker control) as well as debug phase based on an extended GDB interface




Features


Memory Usage
Visual Expressions
Integrated Code Generation
Eclipse CDT Editor


Target Devices


e² studio has been developed to support the key promotion families of Renesas controllers:
  • RL78 Family
  • RX Family
  • RH850 Family*
  • SuperH Family (SH-2 and SH-2A)
As new devices are released from Renesas, e² studio can easily be updated to add the necessary support files and debugger extensions.
* Note, The working sample for RH850 is supported. (Debug support only)

To know More click here




POINTERS IN C - Part1


For any beginner in C programming, the most intriguing and confusing part will be pointers (you can ask any novice C programmer).  The following will be a simple attempt to explain pointers for a beginner.

A pointer in its simplest of terms is a variable which points to the address of other variable.





Let us consider integer variable 'a' and initialize it as follows:

int a=1;

Variable a will be stored in a memory location and as we all know every memory location has an address. Let us assume "a" is stored at address 20.

i.e.,

int a=1; (address of a is 20)

Now we are introducing one more variable ptr, which is declared as:

int *ptr;

Let us see each word separately of the above declaration.

Int represents integer.

*ptr represents a pointer variable, which points to another variable of integer type (bit confusing isnt it? it should be, let us come to this a bit later), we are using * to indicate that what is following * is a pointer variable (to make the compiler understand).

We can store the address of another variable in pointer variable,  i.e., the content of the pointer variable can be the address of another variable.

Let us assume address of variable "ptr" as 30;

And now, let us consider

 ptr = &a;

the above statement indicate the compiler to assign the address of variable 'a' to the variable 'ptr' (just like how we are assigning 1 to variable 'a').

The '&' operator is known as "address of" operator (remember scanf?).

Now let's do some printing.

1. printf("%d",a); 1
2. printf("%d",&a); 20
3. printf("%d,ptr); 20
4. pritnf("%d,&ptr); 30
5. printf("%d",*ptr); 1

Understandably, we do not have any problems with first 2 printf statements.  Problem starts from the third...

The third statement prints the value 20, which is the address of variable 'a' (remember?), this is because we are assigning the address of variable 'a' to 'ptr' (ptr=&a).

Fourth statement is an usual statement which prints the address of the variable 'ptr.'

Fifth one is the most confusing, but important of all, where the printed value is 1, which is actually the value of variable 'a'.  This is happening because of * operator preceds 'ptr' variable.  * is called as derefencing operator.

What is happening here actually?!  When we are using deferencing operator *, the content of variable 'ptr' is considered (by the compiler obviously) as address of another variable and the corresponding value in that address will be printed.

So as per our example, the address of the variable 'a' is stored in variable 'ptr' (remember ptr=&a?), and when the printf statement gets executed, the value stored in address 20 (which is 1) is printed.

we just tried to give a toast of pointers in this introductory part and will explore more of pointers in detail in the coming days...happy programming.

Sakthi
nsakthivelu@gmail.com









Flashing Leds Using IC555


This simple circuit using IC555 will generate on/off signal through which we can do Led blinking . 

the Duty Cycle of the square wave is depending on R1,R2,C1 Values .
 This is kind of one channel pulse generator . If we want more than one channel to generate different square wave signals with different Duty Cycles, we can use IC4017 .
 
  
The following are the Standard Resistor & Capacitor values.
NOTE:  Use this as references for design calculations. Real time application may have differences. These values are std fixed. But actual values may vary depending on the manufacturer's tolerance. 



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