The following are the Standard Resistor & Capacitor values.
NOTE:  Use this as references for design calculations. Real time application may have differences. These values are std fixed. But actual values may vary depending on the manufacturer's tolerance. 



Steps to  Create  "God Mode" In Windows 7
1. Create a New folder


2 Rename the New folder in to      " God Mode.{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}"


3. Here its your God Mode in Windows 7



4. Double Click  the God Mode and you will see the All the Setting control of Windows 7 :-)



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Kali Sankar . V
Ethical Hacking Editor
Elecdude.com

DIFFERENCES OF CMOS 4000 SERIES, 74LS, 74HC, 74HCT SERIES IC

Integrated Circuit (IC) is fastly growing and different technologies have been developed and being developed. Most commonly available IC families are CMOS 4000, 74LS, 74HC, 74HCT. Now let us see the characteristics of those families and their differences.



4000 Series CMOS
        This family of logic ICs is numbered from 4000 onwards, and from 4500 onwards. They have a B at the end of the number (e.g. 4001B) which refers to an improved design introduced some years ago. Most of them are in 14-pin or 16-pin packages. They use CMOS circuitry which means they use very little power and can tolerate a wide range of power supply voltages (3 to 15V) making them ideal for battery powered projects. CMOS is pronounced 'see-moss' and stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. 

       However the CMOS circuitry also means that they are static sensitive. Touching a pin while charged with static electricity (from your clothes for example) may damage the IC. In fact most ICs in regular use are quite tolerant and earthing your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before handling them will be adequate. ICs should be left in their protective packaging until you are ready to use them. For the more sensitive (and expensive!) ICs special equipment is available, including earthed wrist straps and earthed work surfaces.

74LS, 74HC, 74HCT
There are several families of logic ICs numbered from 74xx00 onwards with letters (xx) in the middle of the number to indicate the type of circuitry, eg 74LS00 and 74HC00. The original family (now obsolete) had no letters, eg 7400. 

The 74LS (Low-power Schottky) family (like the original) uses TTL(Transistor-Transistor Logic) circuitry which is fast but requires more power than later families. The 74 series is often still called the 'TTL series' even though the latest ICs do not use TTL! 

The 74HC family has High-speed CMOS circuitry, combining the speed of  TTL with the very low power consumption of the 4000 series. They are CMOS ICs with the same pin arrangements as the older 74LS family. Note that 74HC inputs cannot be reliably driven by 74LS outputs because the voltage ranges used for logic 0 are not quite compatible, use 74HCT instead.

The 74HCT family is a special version of 74HC with 74LS TTL-compatible inputs so 74HCT can be safely mixed with 74LS in the same system. In fact 74HCT can be used as low-power direct replacements for the older 74LS ICs in most circuits. The minor disadvantage of 74HCT is a lower immunity to noise, but this is unlikely to be a problem in most situations. 

The CMOS circuitry used in the 74HC and 74HCT series ICs means that they are static sensitive. Touching a pin while charged with static electricity (from your clothes for example) may damage the IC. In fact most ICs in regular use are quite tolerant and earthing your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before handling them will be adequate. ICs should be left in their protective packaging until you are ready to use them. 

CMOS 4000 series family characteristics:
  • Supply: 3 to 15V, small fluctuations are tolerated.
  • Inputs have very high impedance (resistance), this is good because it means they will not affect the part of the circuit where they are connected. However, it also means that unconnected inputs can easily pick up electrical noise and rapidly change between high and low states in an unpredictable way. This is likely to make the IC behave erratically and it will significantly increase the supply current. To prevent problems all unused inputs MUST be connected to the supply (either +Vs or 0V), this applies even if that part of the IC is not being used in the circuit!
  • Outputs can sink and source only about 1mA if you wish to maintainthe correct output voltage to drive CMOS inputs. If there is no need to drive any inputs the maximum current is about 5mA with a 6V supply, or 10mA with a 9V supply (just enough to light an LED). To switch larger currents you can connect a transistor.
  • Fan-out: one output can drive up to 50 inputs.
  • Gate propagation time: typically 30ns for a signal to travel through a gate with a 9V supply, it takes a longer time at lower supply voltages.
  • Frequency: up to 1MHz, above that the 74 series is a better choice.
  • Power consumption (of the IC itself) is very low, a few µW. It is much greater at high frequencies, a few mW at 1MHz for example.

74HC and 74HCT family characteristics:
  • 74HC Supply: 2 to 6V, small fluctuations are tolerated.
  • 74HCT Supply: 5V ±0.5V, a regulated supply is best.
  • Inputs have very high impedance (resistance), this is good because it means they will not affect the part of the circuit where they are connected. However, it also means that unconnected inputs can easily pick up electrical noise and rapidly change between high and low states in an unpredictable way. This is likely to make the IC behave erratically and it will significantly increase the supply current. To prevent problems all unused inputs MUST be connected to the supply (either +Vs or 0V), this applies even if that part of the IC is not being used in the circuit! Note that 74HC inputs cannot be reliably driven by 74LS outputs because the voltage ranges used for logic 0 are not quite compatible. For reliability use 74HCT if the system includes some 74LS ICs.
  • Outputs can sink and source about 4mA if you wish to maintain the correct output voltage to drive logic inputs, but if there is no need to drive any inputs the maximum current is about 20mA. To switch larger currents you can connect a transistor.
  • Fan-out: one output can drive many inputs (50+), except 74LS inputs because these require a higher current and only 10 can be driven.
  • Gate propagation time: about 10ns for a signal to travel through a gate.
  • Frequency: up to 25MHz.
  • Power consumption (of the IC itself) is very low, a few µW. It is much greater at high frequencies, a few mW at 1MHz for example. 

74LS family TTL characteristics:
  • Supply: 5V ±0.25V, it must be very smooth, a regulated supply is best. In addition to the normal supply smoothing, a 0.1µF capacitor should be connected across the supply near the IC to remove the 'spikes' generated as it switches state, one capacitor is needed for every 4 ICs.
  • Inputs 'float' high to logic 1 if unconnected, but do not rely on this in a permanent (soldered) circuit because the inputs may pick up electrical noise. 1mA must be drawn out to hold inputs at logic 0. In a permanent circuit it is wise to connect any unused inputs to +Vs to ensure good immunity to noise.
  • Outputs can sink up to 16mA (enough to light an LED), but they can source only about 2mA. To switch larger currents you can connect a transistor.
  • Fan-out: one output can drive up to 10 74LS inputs, but many more 74HCT inputs.
  • Gate propagation time: about 10ns for a signal to travel through a gate.
  • Frequency: up to about 35MHz (under the right conditions).
  • Power consumption (of the IC itself) is a few mW.

Also see more:




Bharat Electronics Limited invites application for the recruitment of Probationary Engineers with BE/B.Tech, B.Sc degree

Company Name: Bharat Electronics Limited
Position: Probationary Engineers
Education: BE/B.Tech, B.Sc
Experience: FRESHERS
Location: Across India



Post Name : Probationary Engineers

Qualification :For Probationary Engineers, GEN / OBC candidates with first class in B.E / B.Tech / B.Sc Engineering Graduate from AICTE approved Colleges in Electronics / Electronics and Communication / Electronics & Telecommunication / Communication / Telecommunication / Mechanical / Civil/ Electrical/Electrical & Electronics / Computer Science / Computer Engineering/ Computer Science and Engineering. Candidates with first class in AMIE / AMIETE, in the above disciplines are also eligible to apply. SC/ST/PWD candidates with pass class in the above degree / disciplines are eligible to apply.Candidates currently studying in the final semester / final year of BE / B.Tech / B.Sc Engineering in the specializations mentioned above and who will be appearing for their final semester/final year exams in the month of May/June 2014 are also eligible to apply.

No.of Post : 200
     Electronics-100, Mechanical - 75, CS - 20, Civil - 03, Electrical - 02
Age: as on 01.05.2014 :25 years
Pay Scale : Rs.16400-40500


The above openings are for all/any of the Units/Offices of BEL at of the following locations: Bangalore (Karnataka), Ghaziabad (UP), Pune (Maharashtra), Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Machilipatnam (Andhra Pradesh) Panchkula (Haryana), Kotdwara (Uttarakhand) Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra)


Application Fee:
Candidates belonging to GEN/OBC category are required pay an application fee of 500/-. The mode of payment is through SBI Challan. Candidates are required to download and print the bank challan (Click here to download challan). The challan (in triplicate) is to be filled by the applicant and submitted to the nearest SBI Branch, with an application fee of Rs.500/- plus bank charges. On submission of the challan unique transaction number (Journal Number) will be generated and the same would be written by the staff at the Bank.



Service Agreement :
Selected candidates will be required to undergo an Orientation / On-the-Job training for a period of 6 months. They will be required to execute a Service Agreement to serve the Company for a period of 3 years after training and should be willing to serve in any of the Units / Offices of BEL. The amount payable for breach of Service Contract is Rs.3, 00,000/-


Method of Selection:
Selection will be through written test and interview of shortlisted candidates based on performance in the written test.


How to apply:
Last date for applying on line is 05.06.2014. Send the duly completed Printed Version of Application Form having Auto Generated Online Application No. alongwith requisite amount of Bank Challan (wherever required) to "Post Box No.3076, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 " (To be sent through ordinary post only) so as to reach on or before 10th June 2014.


Last date to apply : June 05, 2014

For More details click here: https://jobapply.in/BEL2014/DetailsAdv.htm
     Often frequency measurement is needed, but one cannot afford a DSO or an appropriate meter for that. So we have designed it in AVR microcontroller which is easily available and much easier to program.

    This frequency measurement uses Input Capture module in Timer1 via ICP pin PB0. For ease of programming, we have designed a low frequency measurement for frequencies lesser than 1KHz, but can be increased upto several 100KHz, through prescalar.

       The circuit diagram is

LCD 4 BIT INTERFACING WITH AVR MICROCONTROLLERS ATMEGA8,16,32,64

   This is the header file for LCD 4-bit mode interfacing with AVR Microcontroller series such as Atmega 16, 32, 64, 8, etc. It is coded in GCC & supports all AVR GCC compliers.

   This is designed for 16×2 LCD, but can be exteneded upto 20×4 LCD.
   Contains all functions with different cursor styles, string display from ram & flash rom, bcd, signed & unsigned  integer 8-bit and 16-bit numbers, shift left, shift right, etc.



          Electronics has much more complex calculations than basic maths. More tools are available for these electronics calculation but they are mostly windows or linux based application.



          Android, an opensource smartphone OS, enables anyone to design an app for it. So it is easy for any common person who knows the electronics & basic programming can build an app.

          Lets see the commonly available free Android apps for Electronic designs, such as ohm’s law, KCL, KVL, resistor colour code calculations, series-parallel calculations, etc,etc,etc,,,,

·         Ohm's Law
Ohm's law calculator and the Watt's Law calculator.

·         Electronics Toolkit
Electronic tool kit calculates unknown quantities in the field of electrical and electronics engineering. It provides a resistor color code, power calculator, and Ohm’s Law, Series, Parallel, and Series/Parallel combination of inductors, capacitor and resistors, resistivity, Power factor triangle, i.e. active, reactive and apparent, magnetic fields, reactances and much more.

·         Every Circuit
    This is another recommended android Smartphones app for electrical and especially for electronics engineers and students. EveryCircuit app lets you understand that how do design different important electronic circuits and how they work.
     This app is handy in circuit like Logic gate, LED flashing
circuits, Resistive, inductive, capacitive, operational amplifier and other electrical & electronics circuits and can view dynamic charge, current and voltage colorful animations with waveforms.

·         DroidTesla
DroidTesla is a simple SPICE tool. Its permit you to solve, simulate and analyze different electrical and electronic circuits by using KCL and KVL. It has the ability to solve both linear and nonlinear circuits like resistive, capacitive, inductive and BJT, Transistor, Diode, AC/DC Voltage and Current sources, 555, MOSFETS, Logic gate and lots more…

·         ElectroDroid
ElectroDroid is a simple and powerful collection of electronics tools and references. It has a variety of tools & calculators, pin description, SMD details, etc,etc. This app is also available in pro version which can be bought from the Play store. Pro version supports the developer, unlocks more features and contains no ads.


·         Electrical calculations
It has the ability to identify the unknown values of different quantities of electrical and electronics circuits. There are lots of electrical calculators available in this app at once.


·         Electrical LV Calculator
It allows to design electrical system which reduces the reactive power, that is it improve power factor, the maximum allowable power installation, calculates current in a short circuit, Voltage drop, the automatic switch current in A, calculate the minimum and maximum cable and wire size, calculate the number of earth electrodes and earth resistance etc

·         Electrical Engineering
This app contains 3 of the most useful Electronic tools, the electrical calculator, the Electrical circuit calculator and the Electrical formulas. It also provides you a list of few electronics resources and ebooks that can be bought through the app.





This circuit is simple and easy to build & has only a few discrete components.
This indicates the 12V battery safe operating voltage.




Diode D1 protects the circuit when the battery polarity is reversed.
The LED glows with full brightness when the battery voltage is above the set threshold.

The threshold is set with the zener diode D2. for this circuit the threshold will
 Vds+VBEq1 ~= 11.5V

When the Battery voltage is above 10.8V the LED glows with very little brightness & increases with increase in battery voltage.
When it is above 11.5V the LED glows with full brightness.

The resistance R1 limts the current flow through the LED, R2 limits base current.
The current consumption is very less. Approx 10mA for battery voltage above 13V & very lesser current consumption (in few uA) when battery voltage drops below 10.5V.







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